The Animal Legal Defense Fund publishes an annual report that ranks each state`s animal welfare laws according to their relative strength and overall comprehensiveness. In a 2013 report, the top five states for their strict anti-cruelty laws were Illinois, Maine, Michigan, Oregon and California. The five states with the lowest animal cruelty laws in 2013 were Kentucky, Iowa, South Dakota, New Mexico and Wyoming.  National crime reporting systems do not monitor animal cruelty. This would be very difficult because law enforcement agencies are scattered across thousands of state and local agencies, laws vary from state to state, and standardized reporting structures have not been developed. The two main efforts to collect data on the prevalence of animal abuse rely primarily on media reports rather than law enforcement records as a source.† Since 2010, Hong Kong has supplemented or replaced anti-cruelty laws with a positive approach using laws that determine how animals should be treated.  The main government agency responsible for animal welfare in Hong Kong is the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation (AFCD). There are also studies of domestic violence cases that have shown a link between spousal or partner violence and pet abuse. Abusers may abuse a partner`s pet to threaten or control it, or to inflict violence on both victims at the same time. For example, a six-year study conducted in 11 U.S. metropolitan areas found that pet abuse is one of four predictors of domestic violence. In addition, in a national survey of U.S.
shelters for victims of domestic violence and child abuse, 85 percent of women and 63 percent of children who came to the shelter reported animal cruelty in their homes. The animals most frequently reported of abuse are dogs, cats, horses and livestock. Undercover investigations have shown that cruelty to animals is abundant in factory farming. But due to the weak protection afforded to livestock by state cruelty laws, only the most shocking cases are reported, and few are prosecuted. The practice of cruelty to animals for divination purposes is found in ancient cultures, and some modern religions such as Santeria continue to perform animal sacrifices for healing and other rituals. Taghairm was executed by the ancient Scots to summon demons. Most animal welfare laws are passed at the state level. There are also a handful of federal animal welfare laws.
In addition, some cities and counties issue ordinances to protect animals. Abusers are most often older adolescents or young adults. Men are more likely to intentionally cruelize animals than women.30 Although abuse occurs at all socioeconomic levels, it is concentrated in disadvantaged socioeconomic households.31 Physical cruelty is often motivated by unrealistic expectations about how animals should behave. and the abusers cause pain and anxiety to control or take revenge on the animal. They may also express anger at other situations by abusing the animal.32 In domestic violence situations, abusers may abuse animals to intimidate or control their human victims.33 While NIBRS data is essential for investigating animal cruelty, recent research studies have used other lines of evidence. For example, researchers examined the demographic and criminal characteristics of 150 adult males arrested for animal cruelty. The average age of offenders included in the study was 37 years, with 41% at least once for interpersonal violence, 18% for sexual offences, and 28% for various interpersonal crimes (e.g., 37 As outrageous as it may sound, remember that the cruel behaviour depicted in these images is illegal and that is what we need to focus on. The above obscenity exceptions are child pornography, crash videos, and other content considered criminally obscene, but these are topics for another conversation.
While specialized training is desirable, particularly for complicated cases of hoarding or physical abuse that are being prosecuted, most police officers require only basic knowledge of animal health and normal condition to recognize the warning signs of animal cruelty. These signs may include the following:7:7 According to the three conceptual approaches to animal cruelty discussed above, conducting unnecessary experiments or demonstrations on animals that cause them significant pain or distress may be considered cruelty. Due to changing ethical standards, this type of cruelty tends to be less common today than before. For example, classroom demonstrations of lack of oxygen regularly suffocated birds by placing them under a glass blanket, and animals were suffocated in the dogs` dens to demonstrate the density and toxicity of carbon dioxide to curious Grand Tour travelers. The internet and social media are mirror images of our society – the good, the bad and the ugly. Too often, the Animal Legal Defense Fund receives calls and emails from people who have come across digital content containing images depicting blatant cruelty to animals, asking us what to do with the evidence they discover. For those who interact with victims of abuse, the issue of animals and animal welfare allows these parties to discover other types of domestic violence. Victims of violence may be reluctant or reluctant to talk about their own violence. However, they may be willing to talk about the abuse of their pets.45 When talking to victims of abuse, officers should ask specific questions, such as “How are animals treated?” and “What if the pet gets into trouble?” Officers must observe how household members interact with animals and how animals behave. In addition, they should ask children indirect questions about their experiences with animals.46 The Animal Legal Defense Fund publishes an annual report ranking each province`s and territory`s animal welfare laws according to their relative strength and overall scope. In 2014, the four strongest provinces and territories were Manitoba, British Columbia, Ontario and Nova Scotia.
The four lowest were Saskatchewan, the Northwest Territories, Quebec and Nunavut.  Venezuela issued a “Law for the Protection of Free and Captive Domestic Wildlife” in 2010, which establishes responsibilities and penalties for animal care and ownership. Cruelty to animals is punishable, but is not grounds for imprisonment.  The law also prohibits the possession, breeding, and breeding of pit bulls among similar breeds that are allegedly aggressive and dangerous. This has elicited reactions from dog owners who have stated that aggression in dogs is determined more by the treatment by the owner than by the breed itself.  Cruelty and neglect transcend all social and economic boundaries, and media reports suggest that cruelty to animals is prevalent in both rural and urban areas. A history of torturing pets and small animals, a behavior known as zoosadism, is considered one of the signs of certain psychopathologies, including antisocial personality disorder, also known as psychopathic personality disorder. According to the New York Times, “[the FBI has found that a history of animal cruelty is one of the characteristics that regularly appears in its computer records of rapists and serial murderers, and the Standard Diagnostic and Treatment Manual for Psychiatric and Emotional Disorders lists animal cruelty as a diagnostic criterion for behavioral disorders.”  “An investigation of psychiatric patients who had repeatedly tortured dogs and cats found that they all had high levels of aggression towards humans, including a patient who murdered a young boy.  Robert K. Ressler, an agent in the Department of Behavioral Sciences at the Federal Bureau of Investigation, investigated serial killers and noted, “Killers like this (Jeffrey Dahmer) very often start killing and torturing animals when they were children.  It is also illegal in many parts of Europe to scratch a cat.
 PACT is a federal law that prohibits crushing, burning, drowning, suffocation, impament, or other deliberate acts of violence against animals and allows for the prosecution of crimes that affect interstate commerce or fall under federal jurisdiction.